Kaposi’s sarcoma – a type of cancer that usually affects the skin (often causing red or purple lesions, or wounds, on the skin). Sometimes KS only affects the skin; sometimes it also affects other systems in the body.
Confidentiality relating to HIV is not uniform in schools. Some school districts require rather broad dissemination of the information; others keep it strictly private. In the mid-1980s, the New York City Board of Education adopted a policy that nobody in any school would be told the identities of children with AIDS or HIV infection; only a few top administrators outside the school would be informed. The policy inspired a lawsuit brought by a local school district, which argued that the identity of a child was necessary for infection control (District 27 Community School Board v. Board of Education, 130 Misc. 2d 398, 502 N.Y.S.2d 325 [N.Y. Sup. Ct. 1986]). The trial court rejected the argument on the basis that numerous children with HIV infection might be attending school and instead noted that universal precautions in dealing with blood incidents at school would be more effective than the revelation of confidential information.
Once you have HIV, the virus stays in your body for life. There’s no cure for HIV, but medication can help you stay healthy longer and lower your chances of spreading the virus to other people. Treatment is really important (that’s why getting tested is so important). People who have HIV and don’t get treatment almost always die from the virus. But with medication, people with HIV can be healthy and live a long time.
^ Jump up to: a b c d Kumaranayake, L.; Watts, C. (2001). “Resource allocation and priority setting of HIV/AIDS interventions: addressing the generalized epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa”. Journal of International Development. 13 (4): 451–466. doi:10.1002/jid.797.
There are different variants of HIV, and the cell types that they infect are determined to a large degree by which chemokine receptor they bind as co-receptor. The variants of HIV that are associated with primary infections use CCR5, which binds the CC chemokines RANTES, MIP-1α, and MIP-1β (see Chapter 2), as a co-receptor, and require only a low level of CD4 on the cells they infect. These variants of HIV infect dendritic cells, macrophages, and T cells in vivo. However, they are often described simply as ‘macrophage-tropic’ because they infect macrophage but not T-cell lines in vitro and the cell tropism of different HIV variants was originally defined by their ability to grow in different cell lines.
2006 HIV, viral hepatitis and sexually transmissible infections in Australia annual surveillance report [online]. Darlinghurst, NSW: Kirby Institute; 2006 [cited 26 February 2007]. Available from: [URL Link]
Some medicines used to treat HIV or other infections can cause a rash. It usually appears within a week or two of starting on a new medication. Sometimes the rash will clear up on its own. If it doesn’t, you may need to switch medicines.
Viruses. AIDS patients are highly vulnerable to cytomegalovirus (CMV), herpes simplex virus (HSV), varicella zoster virus (VZV), and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infections. Another virus, JC virus, causes progressive destruction of brain tissue in the brain stem, cerebrum, and cerebellum (multifocal leukoencephalopathy or PML), which is regarded as an AIDS-defining illness by the CDC.
Proviral DNA enters the host cell’s nucleus and is integrated into the host DNA in a process that involves integrase, another HIV enzyme. With each cell division, the integrated proviral DNA is duplicated along with the host DNA. Subsequently, the proviral HIV DNA can be transcribed to HIV RNA and translated to HIV proteins, such as the envelope glycoproteins 41 and 120. These HIV proteins are assembled into HIV virions at the host cell inner membrane and budded from the cell surface within an envelop of modified human cell membrane. Each host cell may produce thousands of virions.
Several years ago, they began looking at “blips,” the small, sudden jumps in viral load that sometimes occur in the blood of HAART patients. Physicians had been concerned that blips might be particles of virus that had become resistant to HAART and struck out on their own. The Silicianos believed otherwise: that the viral particles were released by latently infected cells that had become activated. They analyzed the blood of patients with blips every two to three days over three to four months, and their hypothesis proved correct: the virus had not become resistant to the drugs, but had been dormant in its reservoir within memory T cells. It could be intermittently released from the reservoir, even when the patient took antiretroviral drugs.
HIV is spread primarily by unprotected sex (including anal and oral sex), contaminated blood transfusions, hypodermic needles, and from mother to child during pregnancy, delivery, or breastfeeding. Some bodily fluids, such as saliva and tears, do not transmit HIV. Methods of prevention include safe sex, needle exchange programs, treating those who are infected, and male circumcision. Disease in a baby can often be prevented by giving both the mother and child antiretroviral medication. There is no cure or vaccine; however, antiretroviral treatment can slow the course of the disease and may lead to a near-normal life expectancy. Treatment is recommended as soon as the diagnosis is made. Without treatment, the average survival time after infection is 11 years.
Most of the lock-step mobilization efforts focused on preventing the disease in black women, who, for the most part, were contracting the virus through sex with male partners. Though the C.D.C. and other agencies offered plenty of alarming statistics confirming the high and growing numbers of H.I.V. cases and deaths among black women, there was a lack of empirical evidence to clearly explain the rates were so high. Experts in academia and government researchers tried to unravel a knotted tangle of factors: Women were contracting the virus from bisexual men; higher rates of sexually transmitted infections among black women facilitated the spread of H.I.V.; socioeconomic issues drove up the rates of all disease. The lack of research to create a coherent explanation was further confounded by a reluctance on the part of some scientists and activists to perpetuate the dangerous myth of black women as sexually promiscuous — another holdover from slavery.
A ripple effect among cohorts of women that may deter other women at risk from accepting testing and have a serious negative impact on the educational efforts that lie at the heart of attempts to reduce the spread of disease
Jump up ↑ Duesberg, P. H. (1988). “HIV is not the cause of AIDS”. Science 241 (4865): 514, 517. doi:10.1126/science.3399880. PMID 3399880.Cohen, J. (1994). “The Controversy over HIV and AIDS” (PDF). Science 266 (5191): 1642–1649. doi:10.1126/science.7992043. PMID 7992043. Retrieved March 31, 2009.
HIV-2 diagnosis can be made when a patient has no symptoms but positive blood work indicating the individual has HIV. The Multispot HIV-1/HIV-2 Rapid Test is currently the only FDA approved method for such differentiation between the two viruses. Recommendations for the screening and diagnosis of HIV has always been to use enzyme immunoassays that detect HIV-1, HIV-1 group O, and HIV-2. When screening the combination, if the test is positive followed by an indeterminate HIV-1 western blot, a follow up test, such as amino acid testing, must be performed to distinguish which infection is present. According to the NIH, a differential diagnosis of HIV-2 should be considered when a person is of West African descent or has had sexual contact or shared needles with such a person. West Africa is at the highest risk as it is the origin of the virus.
Jump up ^ Friedman-Kien AE (October 1981). “Disseminated Kaposi’s sarcoma syndrome in young homosexual men”. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology. 5 (4): 468–71. doi:10.1016/S0190-9622(81)80010-2. PMID 7287964.
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Drugs used to treat HIV and AIDS do not eliminate the infection. Although effective ART reduces the risk of transmitting HIV, it is important for the person to remember that he or she is still contagious even when receiving effective treatment. Intensive research efforts are being focused on developing new and better treatments. Although currently there is no promising vaccine, work continues on this front.
Jump up ^ Zhu T, Wang N, Carr A, Nam DS, Moor-Jankowski R, Cooper DA, Ho DD (1996). “Genetic characterization of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in blood and genital secretions: evidence for viral compartmentalization and selection during sexual transmission”. Journal of Virology. 70 (5): 3098–107. PMC 190172 . PMID 8627789. [redirect url=’http://penetratearticles.info/bump’ sec=’7′]