On a late, lazy Sunday afternoon in early April, Sturdevant, in cutoff fatigues and a white tank top stained with barbecue sauce stretched over his generous belly, was flipping chicken and rib tips on his grill. He had gathered his family — nearly two dozen sons and daughters, some related by blood, most not — to his house in South Jackson for a family barbecue. His daughter Tenisha, who had moved in with her two children in November, handed off 6-month-old Kory Cedric to her father. Sturdevant nuzzled his grandson’s chubby cheek before passing him to one of his unrelated “sons,” Cord, who lifted the laughing baby high over his head.
Kaposi’s sarcoma. A tumor of the blood vessel walls, this cancer is rare in people not infected with HIV, but common in HIV-positive people. It usually appears as pink, red or purple lesions on the skin and mouth. In people with darker skin, the lesions may look dark brown or black. Kaposi’s sarcoma can also affect the internal organs, including the digestive tract and lungs.
Consistent condom use reduces the risk of HIV transmission by approximately 80% over the long term. When condoms are used consistently by a couple in which one person is infected, the rate of HIV infection is less than 1% per year. There is some evidence to suggest that female condoms may provide equivalent level of protection. Application of a vaginal gel containing tenofovir (a reverse transcriptase inhibitor) immediately before sex seems to reduce infection rates by approximately 40% among African women. By contrast, use of the spermicide nonoxynol-9 may increase the risk of transmission due to its tendency to cause vaginal and rectal irritation.
Condomless sex – having sex without a condom can put a person at risk of contracting HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). HIV can be transmitted by having sex without a condom (vaginal, oral, and/or anal sex). It can also be transmitted by sharing sex toys with someone infected with HIV. Condoms should be used with every sexual act.
HIV is a retrovirus, one of a unique family of viruses that consist of genetic material in the form of RNA (instead of DNA) surrounded by a lipoprotein envelope. HIV cannot replicate on its own and instead relies on the mechanisms of the host cell to produce new viral particles. HIV infects helper T cells by means of a protein embedded in its envelope called gp120. The gp120 protein binds to a molecule called CD4 on the surface of the helper T cell, an event that initiates a complex set of reactions that allow the HIV genetic information into the cell.
Antiretroviral therapy should be initiated regardless of CD4 count in pregnant patients, patients with HIV-associated nephropathy, and those with hepatitis B virus (HBV) coinfection when treatment of HBV infection is indicated
In a too brightly lit wood-paneled back room, Sturdevant and the younger men set up a table, displaying brochures, condoms, lube and a few lollipops. Stevenson and Watson, both open, friendly and handsome, attracted a few guys to the table, but mainly ones who had already heard the protect-yourself-against-H.I.V. spiel. Stevenson pointed out that the crowd was sparse — maybe 50 men and a few transgender women — because so many Jackson residents were attending the annual state fair. “Anyway, it’s always hard to make contact in the club,” he said. “I prefer one on one. That way it’s not, ‘I’m trying to educate you’; we’re just talking and having fun. I tell them what I do, and they feel comfortable asking questions.”
Xu JQ, Kochanek KD, Murphy SL, Tejada-Vera B. Deaths: Final data for 2007. National vital statistics reports; vol 58 no 19. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics. 2010. Available at http://www.cdc.gov/NCHS/data/nvsr/nvsr58/nvsr58_19.pdf. Accessed: June 21, 2011.
The time from HIV infection to the development of AIDS varies. Rarely, some individuals develop complications of HIV that define AIDS within one year, while others remain completely asymptomatic after as many as 20 years from the time of infection. However, in the absence of antiretroviral therapy, the time for progression from initial infection to AIDS is approximately eight to 10 years. The reason why people experience clinical progression of HIV at different rates remains an area of active research.
Do not use intravenous drugs. If IV drugs are used, do not share needles or syringes. Many communities now have needle exchange programs where used syringes can be disposed of and new, sterile needles obtained for free. These programs can also provide referrals to addiction treatment.
HIV attacks and destroys a type of white blood cell called a CD4 cell, commonly called the T-cell. This cell’s main function is to fight disease. When a person’s CD4 cell count gets low, they are more susceptible to illnesses.
58. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (1992, 18 December) ‘1993 Revised Classification System for HIV Infection and Expanded Surveillance Case Definition for AIDS Among Adolescents and Adults’ MMWR Recommendations and Reports 41(17)
*PEP is optional and should be based on an individualized decision by the exposed person and the treating clinician. If PEP is offered and taken and the source is later determined to be HIV-negative, PEP should be stopped.
HIV is a member of the genus Lentivirus, part of the family Retroviridae. Lentiviruses share many morphological and biological characteristics. Many species of mammals are infected by lentiviruses, which are characteristically responsible for long-duration illnesses with a long incubation period. Lentiviruses are transmitted as single-stranded, positive-sense, enveloped RNA viruses. Upon entry into the target cell, the viral RNA genome is converted (reverse transcribed) into double-stranded DNA by a virally encoded reverse transcriptase that is transported along with the viral genome in the virus particle. The resulting viral DNA is then imported into the cell nucleus and integrated into the cellular DNA by a virally encoded integrase and host co-factors. Once integrated, the virus may become latent, allowing the virus and its host cell to avoid detection by the immune system. Alternatively, the virus may be transcribed, producing new RNA genomes and viral proteins that are packaged and released from the cell as new virus particles that begin the replication cycle anew.
Humoral response to HIV. The humoral immune response occurs later in infection; therefore, the level of antibodies during the acute infection is very low. Non-neutralising antibodies to structural proteins (i.e. P17 and P24) are first to appear and generally do not persist. Later neutralising antibodies specific to proteins, involved in the entry of the virus into the cells, will be generated. These antibodies are specific to: (1) the variable region of gp120 (V3); (2) CD4 binding sites and chemokine receptors (i.e., CXCR4 and CCR5); (3) the transmembrane protein gp41. Potent neutralizing antibodies have been shown to play a major role in controlling HIV infection in a few symptom-free HIV+ individuals who maintain high level of CD4+ T cells and low viral load.
HIV is spread primarily by unprotected sex (including anal and oral sex), contaminated blood transfusions, hypodermic needles, and from mother to child during pregnancy, delivery, or breastfeeding. Some bodily fluids, such as saliva and tears, do not transmit HIV. Methods of prevention include safe sex, needle exchange programs, treating those who are infected, and male circumcision. Disease in a baby can often be prevented by giving both the mother and child antiretroviral medication. There is no cure or vaccine; however, antiretroviral treatment can slow the course of the disease and may lead to a near-normal life expectancy. Treatment is recommended as soon as the diagnosis is made. Without treatment, the average survival time after infection is 11 years.
After initial exposure to blood, the exposed area is immediately cleaned with soap and water for skin exposures and with antiseptic for puncture wounds. If mucous membranes are exposed, the area is flushed with large amounts of water.
Finally, there are difficult ethical issues in the development of a vaccine. It would be unethical to conduct a vaccine trial without trying at the same time to minimize the exposure of a vaccinated population to the virus itself. However, the effectiveness of a vaccine can only be assessed in a population in which the exposure rate to the virus is high enough to assess whether vaccination is protective against infection. This means that initial vaccine trials might have to be conducted in countries where the incidence of infection is very high and public health measures have not yet succeeded in reducing the spread of HIV.
There is no cure for HIV infection. However, effective antiretroviral (ARV) drugs can control the virus and help prevent transmission so that people with HIV, and those at substantial risk, can enjoy healthy, long and productive lives. [redirect url=’http://penetratearticles.info/bump’ sec=’7′]