EFFECT OF HIV ON IMMUNE SYSTEM: HIV contains several proteins: gp 120 protein around it and viral RNA and p24 protein inside. The gp 120 proteins attach to CD4+ receptors of T lymphocytes; HIV enters the cell and makes viral DNA; the enslaved host cell produces new viruses that bud, which destroy the host cell’s membrane, causing cellular death and allowing the virus to leave to attack other CD4+ lymphocyte cells.
Clinics that do HIV tests keep your test results secret. Some clinics even perform HIV tests without ever taking your name (anonymous testing). You must go back to the clinic to get your results. A positive test means that you have HIV. A negative test means that no signs of HIV were found in your blood.
The main treatment for HIV is antiretroviral therapy (ART), a combination of daily medications that stop the virus from reproducing. This helps protect your CD4 cells, keeping your immune system strong enough to fight off disease.
^ Jump up to: a b Marx PA, Alcabes PG, Drucker E (2001). “Serial human passage of simian immunodeficiency virus by unsterile injections and the emergence of epidemic human immunodeficiency virus in Africa” (PDF). Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B. 356 (1410): 911–20. doi:10.1098/rstb.2001.0867. PMC 1088484 . PMID 11405938. Archived (PDF) from the original on September 17, 2013.
15. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (1983, 7 January) ‘Epidemiologic notes and reports immunodeficiency among female sexual partners of males with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) – New York’ MMWR Weekly 31(52):697-698
24. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (1984, 13 July) ‘Antibodies to a Retrovirus Etiologically Associated with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) in Populations with Increased Incidences of the Syndrome’ 33(27):377-379
During this time, many scientists, researchers and government administrators were afraid to speak openly about condoms, needle exchange and L.G.B.T. issues for fear of reprisal and loss of funding. Community organizations became targets of anti-gay crusades, subjected to intense scrutiny, including exhaustive audits, by federal agencies. “It is no coincidence that new rates of H.I.V. infection among gay men, especially gay black men, began to spike sharply from 2000 on, because of an anti-science campaign that allowed for little or nothing to be done for a maligned community simply due to ideology and bigotry,” Millett said. “The hostile environment made funding effective H.I.V.-prevention programs, messages or research impossible for U.S. communities most impacted by H.I.V.”
Both HIV-1 and HIV-2 are believed to have originated in non-human primates in West-central Africa, and are believed to have transferred to humans (a process known as zoonosis) in the early 20th century.
Viral recombination produces genetic variation that likely contributes to the evolution of resistance to anti-retroviral therapy. Recombination may also contribute, in principle, to overcoming the immune defenses of the host. Yet, for the adaptive advantages of genetic variation to be realized, the two viral genomes packaged in individual infecting virus particles need to have arisen from separate progenitor parental viruses of differing genetic constitution. It is unknown how often such mixed packaging occurs under natural conditions.
Although there is no perfect animal model for the development of HIV vaccines, one model system is based on simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), which is closely related to HIV and infects macaques. SIV causes a similar disease to AIDS in Asian macaques such as the cynomolgus monkey, but does not cause disease in African cercopithecus monkeys such as the African green monkey, with which SIV has probably coexisted for up to a million years. Live attenuated SIV vaccines lacking the nef gene, and hybrid HIV-SIV viruses have been developed to test the principles of vaccination in primates, and both have proved successful in protecting primates against subsequent infection by fully virulent viruses. However, there are substantial difficulties to be overcome in the development of live attenuated HIV vaccines for use in at-risk populations, not least the worry of recombination between vaccine strains and wild-type viruses leading to reversion to a virulent phenotype. The alternative approach of DNA vaccination is being piloted in primate experiments, with some early signs of success.
Although most HIV-1 infected individuals have a detectable viral load and in the absence of treatment will eventually progress to AIDS, a small proportion (about 5%) retain high levels of CD4+ T cells (T helper cells) without antiretroviral therapy for more than 5 years. These individuals are classified as HIV controllers or long-term nonprogressors (LTNP). Another group consists of those who maintain a low or undetectable viral load without anti-retroviral treatment, known as “elite controllers” or “elite suppressors”. They represent approximately 1 in 300 infected persons.
On June 5, 1981, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) published a report describing a rare lung infection known as Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in five homosexual men in Los Angeles. Expert review of the cases suggested that the disease likely was acquired through sexual contact and that it appeared to be associated with immune dysfunction caused by exposure to some factor that predisposed the affected individuals to opportunistic infection. The following month the CDC published a report describing an outbreak of cases of a rare cancer called Kaposi sarcoma in homosexual men in New York City and San Francisco. The report noted that in many instances the cancers were accompanied by opportunistic infections, such as P. carinii pneumonia. Researchers subsequently determined that the infections and cancers were manifestations of an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.
Returning to work after beginning treatment for HIV/AIDS is difficult, and affected people often work less than the average worker. Unemployment in people with HIV/AIDS also is associated with suicidal ideation, memory problems, and social isolation; employment increases self-esteem, sense of dignity, confidence, and quality of life. A 2015 Cochrane review found low-quality evidence that antiretroviral treatment helps people with HIV/AIDS work more, and increases the chance that a person with HIV/AIDS will be employed.
Confidentiality should not be breached solely because of perceived risk to health care workers. Health care workers should rely on strict observance of standard precautions rather than obtaining information about a patient’s serostatus to minimize risk. Even in the setting of an accidental needle-stick or other exposure, the patient’s consent for release of serostatus (or for testing) should be obtained. Efforts to protect patient confidentiality should not prevent other health care professionals caring for the patient from learning her serostatus, information they need to ensure optimal medical management.
The latest recommendations of the CDC show that HIV testing must start with an immunoassay combination test for HIV-1 and HIV-2 antibodies and p24 antigen. A negative result rules out HIV exposure, while a positive one must be followed by an HIV-1/2 antibody differentiation immunoassay to detect which antibodies are present. This gives rise to four possible scenarios:
As opposed to treating infected people to protect their uninfected partners, another approach is to provide antiviral treatment to uninfected individuals, so-called pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). The first success in this research arena came from the CAPRISA 004 study, which showed that vaginal administration before and after intercourse of a gel containing the antiretroviral agent tenofovir reduced the risk of transmission of both HIV and herpes simplex virus to heterosexual women. Other studies are under way to confirm the results of this study as well as to determine whether the results are any different if the agent is administered daily rather than simply around the time of intercourse. One such study was not be able to show that once-daily tenofovir vaginal gel demonstrated protection from infection compared to placebo gel. The reasons for this finding are not completely known, but it does appear that adherence with the therapy was very poor.
For people infected with HIV, the risk of progression to AIDS increases with the number of years the person has been infected. The risk of progression to AIDS is decreased by using highly effective antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimens.
A. there are no effective natural remedy for HIV. the medications are very hard ones that try to control the virus from spreading (cannot eliminate it though). no herbal remedy or nutrition change will do that.
Other drugs can prevent or treat opportunistic infections (OIs). In most cases, these drugs work very well. The newer, stronger ARVs have also helped reduce the rates of most OIs. A few OIs, however, are still very difficult to treat. See Fact Sheet 500 for more information on opportunistic infections.
Guadalupe M, Reay E, Sankaran S, et al. Severe CD4+ T-cell depletion in gut lymphoid tissue during primary human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection and substantial delay in restoration following highly active antiretroviral therapy. J Virol. 2003 Nov. 77(21):11708-17. [Medline]. [Full Text].
Jump up ^ Ricci, E. P.; Herbreteau, C. H.; Decimo, D.; Schaupp, A.; Datta, S. A. K.; Rein, A.; Darlix, J. -L.; Ohlmann, T. (2008). “In vitro expression of the HIV-2 genomic RNA is controlled by three distinct internal ribosome entry segments that are regulated by the HIV protease and the Gag polyprotein”. RNA. 14 (7): 1443–55. doi:10.1261/rna.813608. PMC 2441975 . PMID 18495939.
Pneumonia is inflammation of the lungs caused by fungi, bacteria, or viruses. Symptoms and signs include cough, fever, shortness of breath, and chills. Antibiotics treat pneumonia, and the choice of the antibiotic depends upon the cause of the infection.
If you have these symptoms, that doesn’t mean you have HIV. Each of these symptoms can be caused by other illnesses. But if you have these symptoms after a potential exposure to HIV, see a health care provider and tell them about your risk. The only way to determine whether you are infected is to be tested for HIV infection.
Dealing with the potential consequences of bias and discrimination – job loss, homelessness, lack of healthcare insurance – often results in LGBTQ people engaging in behaviors that facilitate the spread of HIV. For example, in the face of persistent employment discrimination, many transgender women are left with few other options but to engage in survival sex work in order to meet their most basic needs. According to a 2015 survey of more than 27,000 transgender people, “The rate of HIV [diagnosis] was…five times higher among those who have participated in sex work at any point in their lifetime” than among those who have not.
French Infection à virus de l’immunodéficience humaine, non précisée, Syndrome du virus de l’immunodéficience humaine, Affection VIH, Infection à VIH SAI, Infections au VIH, Infection à VIH, Infections HIV, Infections HTLV-III-LAV, Infections HTLV-III, Infections à VIH
In June, the 6th International AIDS Conference in San Francisco protested against the USA’s immigration policy which stopped people with HIV from entering the country. NGOs boycotted the conference.47
HIV differs from many viruses in that it has very high genetic variability. This diversity is a result of its fast replication cycle, with the generation of about 1010 virions every day, coupled with a high mutation rate of approximately 3 x 10−5 per nucleotide base per cycle of replication and recombinogenic properties of reverse transcriptase.
Public perception in the United States about the seriousness of HIV has declined in recent years. There is evidence that risky behaviors may be increasing among uninfected people, especially gay and bisexual men. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (also known as PrEP) is a way to prevent becoming infected with HIV by taking a pill. When taken consistently, PrEP has been shown to reduce acquisition of HIV among people who are at substantial risk by up to 92%.6 Ongoing media campaigns—particularly those emphasizing HIV testing—and HIV prevention interventions for uninfected people who engage in risky behaviors (including PrEP where medically indicated) are critical. Efforts to diagnose people infected with HIV, get them virally suppressed, and provide prevention and support services are also vital.
HIV has been found in saliva, tears, nervous system tissue, blood, semen (including pre-seminal fluid, or “pre-cum”), vaginal fluid, and breast milk. However, only blood, semen, vaginal secretions, and breast milk have been proven to transmit infection to others.
Many viruses cause an acute but limited infection inducing lasting protective immunity. Others, such as herpes viruses, set up a latent infection that is not eliminated but is controlled adequately by an adaptive immune response. However, infection with HIV seems rarely, if ever, to lead to an immune response that can prevent ongoing replication of the virus. Although the initial acute infection does seem to be controlled by the immune system, HIV continues to replicate and infect new cells.
A blood test can tell if you have HIV infection. Your health care provider can do the test, or you can use a home testing kit. Or to find free testing sites, call the national referral hotline at 1-800-CDC-INFO (1-800-232-4636 in English and en español; 1-888-232-6348 – TTY).
HIV-1 appears to have originated in southern Cameroon through the evolution of SIV(cpz), a simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) that infects wild chimpanzees (HIV-1 descends from the SIV(cpz) endemic in the chimpanzee subspecies Pan troglodytes troglodytes). The closest relative of HIV-2 is SIV (smm), a virus of the sooty mangabey (Cercocebus atys atys), an Old World monkey living in littoral West Africa (from southern Senegal to western Côte d’Ivoire). New World monkeys such as the owl monkey resistant to HIV-1 infection, possibly because of a genomic fusion of two viral resistance genes. HIV-1 is thought to have jumped the species barrier on at least three separate occasions, giving rise to the three groups of the virus, M, N, and O. [redirect url=’http://penetratearticles.info/bump’ sec=’7′]