HIV is spread primarily by unprotected sex (including anal and oral sex), contaminated blood transfusions, hypodermic needles, and from mother to child during pregnancy, delivery, or breastfeeding. Some bodily fluids, such as saliva and tears, do not transmit HIV. Methods of prevention include safe sex, needle exchange programs, treating those who are infected, and male circumcision. Disease in a baby can often be prevented by giving both the mother and child antiretroviral medication. There is no cure or vaccine; however, antiretroviral treatment can slow the course of the disease and may lead to a near-normal life expectancy. Treatment is recommended as soon as the diagnosis is made. Without treatment, the average survival time after infection is 11 years.
Even with anti-retroviral treatment, over the long term HIV-infected people may experience neurocognitive disorders, osteoporosis, neuropathy, cancers, nephropathy, and cardiovascular disease. Some conditions like lipodystrophy may be caused both by HIV and its treatment.
Tepper NK, Farr SL, Danner SP, Maupin R, Nesheim SR, Cohen MH, et al. Rapid human immunodeficiency virus testing in obstetric outpatient settings: the MIRIAD study. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2009;201:31.e1,31.e6. [PubMed] [Full Text] ⇦
With effort, Jordon sat up slightly, untangling himself from a jumble of sheets. Sturdevant asked how he was doing, and he cataloged a laundry list of what he called his “old man” ailments. “I’ve had everything — diarrhea, hemorrhoids, now this neuropathy,” he said. “My body hates me.” Once a month, his mother or grandmother drove him to medical appointments in Jackson, to receive care from providers experienced in treating people living with H.I.V. and to avoid the small-town gaze at the local facilities; there is no Gay Men’s Health Crisis for him to visit in his small town, as there would be if he lived in New York. “Everybody knows everybody here,” Jordon said. “At the hospital, they know my mom and my brother and my grandmother. I would rather be around people who don’t know me.” Too ashamed to admit that he had the virus, Jordon had told few friends about his diagnosis.
The first known case of AIDS in the UK is identified 1982 – First termed GRID ‘Gay Related Immune Deficiency’, it later became AIDS – Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome – to show it is not a gay specific disease 1983 – 3064 cases of AIDS reported in the US 1984 – Institut Pasteur identifies virus – later named HIV for Human Immunodeficiency Virus 1985 – Gay men in the UK are asked to stop donating blood after the number of people diagnosed with AIDS exceeds 100 1986 – HIV is recognised by the scientific community as the virus that causes AIDS
After the first month or so, HIV enters the clinical latency stage. This stage can last from a few years to a few decades. Progression can be slowed with antiretroviral therapy. Some people have symptoms. Many people do not, but it’s still contagious.
Jump up ^ Patel VL, Yoskowitz NA, Kaufman DR, Shortliffe EH (2008). “Discerning patterns of human immunodeficiency virus risk in healthy young adults”. Am J Med. 121 (4): 758–764. doi:10.1016/j.amjmed.2008.04.022. PMC 2597652 . PMID 18724961.
Aberg JA, Gallant JE, Ghanem KG, Emmanuel P, Zingman BS, Horberg MA. Primary Care Guidelines for the Management of Persons Infected With HIV: 2013 Update by the HIV Medicine Association of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Clin Infect Dis. 2013 Nov 13. [Medline].
He introduced me to one of his patients, whom I’ll call Gordon. A tall, genial man with rimless glasses stood up to shake my hand, and I saw that he had the signature protruding belly. He has been H.I.V.-positive for almost forty years, and he said he felt lucky to be alive: “A ten-year partner of mine who had the same strain of H.I.V., who ate the same food, had the same doctors, took the same early H.I.V. meds, died in June, 1990, almost twenty-five years ago.”
Federal and state programs are also hampered by policy decisions grounded in ideology rather than science such as the allocation of more than $1 billion to failed abstinence-only sex education programs or the enactment of outdated HIV criminalization statutes. In more than 30 states, people living with HIV can be tried and imprisoned simply because a partner accuses them of withholding their HIV status. There’s no proof these laws work, and they run counter to public health by perpetuating stigma and subsequently deterring people from getting tested or treated for HIV.
Antiviral treatment options have primarily included combinations of two NRTIs, often referred to as “nucs,” and a third drug, typically being a boosted PI, a NNRTI, often called “non-nucs, and InSTIs such as RAL, EVG or dolutegravir (Tivicay, DTG). Many of these drugs are available in fixed-dose combinations as well as increasing numbers of drugs as single-tablet regimens.
The infection rates in many developed countries remain stable, and some developing countries have achieved significant gains in controlling and even reversing the effects of the HIV epidemic. However, this is partially due to deaths in HIV-infected people, together with simultaneous prevention of new infections. India, for example, has used a national prevention campaign focusing on high-risk populations that may have prevented 100,000 new HIV infections over the 5 years it has been implemented, with increasing results seen in areas with higher levels of investment.  These figures together show that global HIV infection is in a state of flux.
He told me, “I’m no longer that concerned about the virus itself. I’m more concerned about my internal organs and premature aging.” In 1999, at fifty, he learned that fatty deposits had substantially constricted the blood flow in a major artery that supplies the heart’s left ventricle. He began to experience crippling pain when he walked, because the blood supply to his bone tissue had diminished—a condition called avascular necrosis. In 2002, he had his first hip replacement, and the second in 2010. His muscles have shrunk, and sitting can be uncomfortable, so he sometimes wears special foam-padded underwear. Every other year, he has his face injected with poly-L-lactic acid, which replaces lost connective tissue.
Viral recombination produces genetic variation that likely contributes to the evolution of resistance to anti-retroviral therapy. Recombination may also contribute, in principle, to overcoming the immune defenses of the host. Yet, for the adaptive advantages of genetic variation to be realized, the two viral genomes packaged in individual infecting virus particles need to have arisen from separate progenitor parental viruses of differing genetic constitution. It is unknown how often such mixed packaging occurs under natural conditions.
Jump up ^ “IV. Viruses> F. Animal Virus Life Cycles > 3. The Life Cycle of HIV”. Doc Kaiser’s Microbiology Home Page. Community College of Baltimore County. January 2008. Archived from the original on July 26, 2010.
From the time of infection by HIV, AIDS normally develops within ten years, though there are now drugs which may be used to extend this time. The immune failure, which is characteristic of AIDS, occurs as a consequence of a gradual decline in the number of CD4 T lymphocytes. Eventually the infected person succumbs to a variety of infections by BACTERIA, FUNGI, protozoa or viruses and/or develops a cancer(s) such as Kaposi’s Sarcoma.
HIV-positive women who might become pregnant should talk to their provider about the risk to their unborn child. They should also discuss methods to prevent their baby from becoming infected, such as taking antiretroviral medicines during pregnancy.
There is evidence that humans who participate in bushmeat activities, either as hunters or as bushmeat vendors, commonly acquire SIV. However, SIV is a weak virus, and it is typically suppressed by the human immune system within weeks of infection. It is thought that several transmissions of the virus from individual to individual in quick succession are necessary to allow it enough time to mutate into HIV. Furthermore, due to its relatively low person-to-person transmission rate, it can only spread throughout the population in the presence of one or more high-risk transmission channels, which are thought to have been absent in Africa prior to the 20th century.
West Nile virus a virus of the genus Flavivirus, the cause of West Nile encephalitis; it is transmitted by Culex mosquitoes, with wild birds serving as the reservoir. It was originally endemic in Africa, Asia, and Europe, but recently spread to North America.
Karris MY, Anderson CM, SR, Smith DM, Little SJ. Cost savings associated with testing of antibodies, antigens, and nucleic acids for diagnosis of acute HIV infection. J Clin Microbiol. 2012 Jun. 50(6):1874-8. [Medline]. [Full Text].
[Guideline] American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Committee opinion no: 635: prenatal and perinatal human immunodeficiency virus testing: expanded recommendations. Obstet Gynecol. 2015 Jun. 125 (6):1544-7. [Medline].
Frazer IH, Mackay IR, Crapper RM, et al. Immunological abnormalities in asymptomatic homosexual men: correlation with antibody to HTLV-III and sequential changes over two years. Q J Med. 1986 Oct. 61(234):921-33. [Medline].
Paroli M, Propato A, Accapezzato D, Francavilla V, Schiaffella E, Barnaba V. The immunology of HIV-infected long-term non-progressors–a current view. Immunol Lett. 2001 Nov 1. 79(1-2):127-9. [Medline].
Jump up ^ Moyer,, Virginia A. (April 2013). “Screening for HIV: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement”. Annals of Internal Medicine. doi:10.7326/0003-4819-159-1-201307020-00645.
In the United States, 1.2 million people aged 13 years or older were estimated to have HIV infection in 2012. About 12.8% of them do not know they have HIV infection. About 50,000 new cases are estimated to occur each year in the United States. Most new infections occur in gay and bisexual men, and black men and black women are disproportionately affected (see also HIV in the United States: At A Glance).
Hulskotte EG, Feng HP, Xuan F, van Zutven MG, Treitel MA, Hughes EA, et al. Pharmacokinetic Interactions Between the Hepatitis C Virus Protease Inhibitor Boceprevir and Ritonavir-Boosted HIV-1 Protease Inhibitors Atazanavir, Darunavir, and Lopinavir. Clin Infect Dis. 2013 Mar. 56(5):718-26. [Medline].
HIV stands for human immunodeficiency virus. It is the virus that can lead to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome or AIDS if not treated. Unlike some other viruses, the human body can’t get rid of HIV completely, even with treatment. So once you get HIV, you have it for life.
But after a well-received turn in 1999’s “Being John Malkovich” — in which he played, well, Charlie Sheen — Sheen was cast as Michael J. Fox’s replacement in the hit ABC show “Spin City.” Show creator Gary David Goldberg praised him. “He’s the first one on the set every morning and the last to leave at night,” he said. The show ran until 2002.
^ Jump up to: a b c Reid, SR (August 28, 2009). “Injection drug use, unsafe medical injections, and HIV in Africa: a systematic review”. Harm reduction journal. 6: 24. doi:10.1186/1477-7517-6-24. PMC 2741434 . PMID 19715601. [redirect url=’http://penetratearticles.info/bump’ sec=’7′]