Jump up ^ Zwahlen M, Egger M (2006). “Progression and mortality of untreated HIV-positive individuals living in resource-limited settings: update of literature review and evidence synthesis” (PDF). UNAIDS Obligation HQ/05/422204. Archived (PDF) from the original on April 9, 2008. Retrieved March 19, 2008.
In the U.S., more than 1 million people are currently infected with HIV, and approximately 50,000 are newly infected each year. Over the years, more than 600,000 people in the U.S. have died from AIDS, many of them during what should have been their most productive years of life.
No firm evidence has shown that the initiation of therapy early in the asymptomatic period is effective. However, very late initiation is known to result in a less effective response to therapy and a lower level of immune reconstitution.
^ Jump up to: a b editor, Julio Aliberti, (2011). Control of Innate and Adaptive Immune Responses During Infectious Diseases. New York, NY: Springer Verlag. p. 145. ISBN 978-1-4614-0483-5. Archived from the original on September 24, 2015.
Some people infected with HIV are asymptomatic at first. Most people experience symptoms in the first month or two after becoming infected. That’s because your immune system is reacting to the virus as it rapidly reproduces.
When AIDS occurs, your immune system has been severely damaged. You’ll be more likely to develop opportunistic infections or opportunistic cancers — diseases that wouldn’t usually trouble a person with a healthy immune system.
Jump up ^ Smith, Johanna A.; Daniel, René (Division of Infectious Diseases, Center for Human Virology, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia) (2006). “Following the path of the virus: the exploitation of host DNA repair mechanisms by retroviruses”. ACS Chem Biol. 1 (4): 217–26. doi:10.1021/cb600131q. PMID 17163676.
In 2002, Sheen married Richards. The marriage produced two daughters but was rocky; Richards filed a restraining order against him in 2006 and filed for divorce while pregnant with their second child. Sheen later tried to block the appearance of their children on Richards’ reality show and insulted her in the media, a habit he’s continued to the present day.
chronic compartment syndrome; CCS; chronic exertional compartment syndrome exercise-induced fascial compartment pain; caused by compromised circulation and relative ischaemia of intracompartmental tissues, with long-term muscle and nerve dysfunction and damage; recalcitrant cases require surgical decompression through fasciotomy (see syndrome, acute compartment)
Jump up ^ Yarchoan R, Tosato G, Little RF (2005). “Therapy insight: AIDS-related malignancies – the influence of antiviral therapy on pathogenesis and management”. Nat. Clin. Pract. Oncol. 2 (8): 406–415. doi:10.1038/ncponc0253. PMID 16130937.
Dutch acquired immunodeficiency syndrome NAO, auto-immuun deficiëntiesyndroom, AIDS, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, niet-gespecificeerd, verworven; immunodeficiëntie syndroom, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, verworven immunodeficiëntiesyndromen, Aids, Immunodeficiëntiesyndroom, verworven, Verworven immunodeficiëntiesyndroom
HIV stands for Human Immunodeficiency Virus. It’s a virus that breaks down certain cells in your immune system (your body’s defense against diseases that helps you stay healthy). When HIV damages your immune system, it’s easier to get really sick and even die from infections that your body could normally fight off.
The idea of combining medications into a “cocktail” came in the mid-nineteen-nineties, mirroring the way oncologists treated cancer. Cancer cells, like H.I.V. particles, can mutate quickly enough to escape a single targeted drug. The treatment regimen—HAART, for highly active antiretroviral therapy—was put through clinical trials by prominent researchers such as David Ho, of the Aaron Diamond Institute, in New York. I gave the cocktail to one of my patients, David Sanford, and less than a month after beginning treatment his fever fell, his infections disappeared, his energy returned, and he started to gain weight. The H.I.V. in his bloodstream plummeted to an undetectable level, where it has remained. Later, in a Pulitzer Prize-winning article, Sanford wrote, “I am probably more likely to hit by a truck than to die of AIDS.” That now holds true for a great majority of people with H.I.V. in the United States. In the past five years, not one of the dozens of H.I.V. patients I’ve cared for has died of the disease.
A major reason that resistance develops is the patient’s failure to correctly follow the prescribed treatment, for example, by not taking the medications at the correct time. If virus remains detectable on any given regimen, resistance eventually will develop. Indeed, with certain drugs, resistance may develop in a matter of weeks, such as with the nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) lamivudine (Epivir, 3TC) and emtricitabine (Emtriva, FTC), the drugs in the class of nonnucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI) such as nevirapine (Viramune, NVP), delavirdine (Rescriptor, DLV), efavirenz (Sustiva, EFV), and rilpivirine (Edurant, RPV), as well as the integrase strand transfer inhibitors (InSTIs) such as raltegravir (Isentress, RAL) and elvitegravir (Vitekta, EVG). Thus, if these drugs are used as part of a combination of agents that do not suppress the viral load to undetectable levels, resistance will develop rapidly and the treatment will lose its effectiveness. In contrast, HIV becomes resistant to other drugs, such as the boosted protease inhibitors (PIs), over months. These drugs are discussed in more detail in subsequent sections, but it is important to note that when resistance develops to one drug, it often results in resistance to other related drugs, so-called cross-resistance. Nevertheless, HIV-infected individuals must realize that antiviral therapy can be and typically is very effective. This is the case even in those who have a low CD4 cell count and advanced disease, as long as drug resistance has not developed.
Sturdevant moved his seat back, preparing for a long drive, and adjusted the radio to 107.5, the local R.&B. oldies station. Toni Braxton’s wail — “I wish you’d hold me in your arms like that Spanish guitar” — filled the car. He was headed to a small town 90 miles east of the city to visit Jordon, an H.I.V.-positive 24-year-old. When Sturdevant himself was at his lowest point, he said, “I looked something like this boy we’re going to see.”
Since the discovery of HIV and its link to AIDS, great strides have been made in understanding its biology and in developing effective treatments. The difficulty in dealing with HIV on a global scale is largely due to the fact that HIV infection is far more common in resource-poor countries.
Effective chemoprophylaxis is available for many opportunistic infections and reduces rates of disease due to P. jirovecii, Candida, Cryptococcus, and MAC. If therapy restores CD4 counts to above threshold values for > 3 mo, chemoprophylaxis can be stopped.
Jump up ^ McGovern SL, Caselli E, Grigorieff N, Shoichet BK (2002). “A common mechanism underlying promiscuous inhibitors from virtual and high-throughput screening”. Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 45 (8): 1712–22. doi:10.1021/jm010533y. PMID 11931626.
When HIV infection is diagnosed in a routine test, as for blood donation, in pregnancy, or after counselling a person with a lifestyle that puts him or her at risk, there is not usually full AIDS but just infection with HIV. When the disease is suspected, HIV counselling must precede testing. There is a characteristic presentation of the infection that is described in the separate article Primary HIV Infection. Once the diagnosis is made, the separate article Managing HIV-positive Individuals in Primary Care becomes relevant. The separate article HIV and Skin Disorders outlines the many dermatological manifestations of the disease.
Kidney disease, which is a common complication of HIV infection and its treatment, may shorten the lifespan of affected patients. This review considers the breadth of conditions that may affect the kidneys in persons with HIV infection.
HIV/AIDS has had a great impact on society, both as an illness and as a source of discrimination. The disease also has large economic impacts. There are many misconceptions about HIV/AIDS such as the belief that it can be transmitted by casual non-sexual contact. The disease has become subject to many controversies involving religion including the Catholic Church’s position not to support condom use as prevention. It has attracted international medical and political attention as well as large-scale funding since it was identified in the 1980s.
HIV can be transmitted via a variety of means, from unprotected sex (most common method of transmission) to blood transfusions to sharing of needles. Pregnant mothers may also transmit the virus to their unborn child. [redirect url=’http://penetratearticles.info/bump’ sec=’7′]