Jump up ^ Baggaley RF, White RG, Boily MC (December 2008). “Systematic review of orogenital HIV-1 transmission probabilities”. International Journal of Epidemiology. 37 (6): 1255–65. doi:10.1093/ije/dyn151. PMC 2638872 . PMID 18664564.
Roussy-Levy syndrome; hereditary areflexic dystasia; Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease type II essential tremor, sensory ataxia, poor coordination and judgement of movement, kyphoscoliosis and distal muscle atrophy (especially peronei); autosomal-dominant inherited disease similar to CMT disease type 1, but developing in early childhood
Mary D. Nettleman, MD, MS, MACP is the Chair of the Department of Medicine at Michigan State University. She is a graduate of Vanderbilt Medical School, and completed her residency in Internal Medicine and a fellowship in Infectious Diseases at Indiana University.
“I’m here to admit that I am in fact HIV-positive,” Sheen told NBC’s Matt Lauer. “And I have to put a stop to this onslaught, this barrage of attacks and of sub-truths and very harmful and mercurial stories that are about the [alleged] threatening the health of so many others, which couldn’t be farther from the truth.”
‘Bantua’. The ‘Bantua’ is filled with locall preperations belived to be able to wash out certain unfriendly abdominal contents through defaecation. The route of access is the anus. This tube-like ‘Bantua’ is pushed through the anus without any kind of lubrication, thus dispossing a person to anal injuries or bleeding. Although the practice is believed to be helpful, it is scaring when it has to be shared by both somewhat healthy and clinically sick people altogther unknowingly.Because blood, most of the times, is seen on the tube upon withdrawal, people who share the ‘Bantua’ may contract HIV OR AIDS without knowing the source. I believe this practice is done somewhere in the world. Reducing and or preventing HIV/AIDS infection is a global concern and therefore require global efforts. I believe you will find this piece of information useful and helpful.
Stage III (also known as symptomatic HIV infection): By this stage, the immune system is significantly affected and the infected person now begins to manifest many symptoms, such as severe weight loss, chronic diarrhoea, persistant fever, tuberculosis, severe bacterial infections (e.g. pneumonia and meningitis).
A count below about 50 cells per microliter of blood is dangerous because additional opportunistic infections that can rapidly cause severe weight loss, blindness, or death commonly occur. These infections include
HIV is a complicated virus. It mutates rapidly and is adept at evading immune system responses. Only a small number of people infected with HIV develop broadly neutralizing antibodies, the kind of antibodies that can fight a range of strains.
Investigations for HIV are described in the separate article Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). Further investigations for AIDS-defining conditions may be indicated. Media interventions can improve the uptake of testing but this might not be sustained.
Keating SM, Golub ET, Nowicki M, et al. The effect of HIV infection and HAART on inflammatory biomarkers in a population-based cohort of women. AIDS. 2011 Sep 24. 25(15):1823-32. [Medline]. [Full Text].
Tuberculosis (TB) is the most common presenting illness and cause of death among people with HIV. It is fatal if undetected or untreated and is the leading cause of death among people with HIV, responsible for 1 of 3 HIV-associated deaths.
Depression is an illness that involves the body, mood, and thoughts and affects the way a person eats and sleeps, the way one feels about oneself, and the way one thinks about things. The principal types of depression are major depression, dysthymia, and bipolar disease (also called manic-depressive disease).
It’s important to know whether you will breastfeed or bottle-feed your baby prior to delivery, as the breasts’ ability to produce milk diminishes soon after childbirth without the stimulation of breastfeeding. Breast milk is easily digested by babies and contains infection-fighting antibodies and cholesterol, which promotes brain growth. Formula-fed babies actually need to eat somewhat less often since formula is less readily digested by the baby than human milk. This article explores the advantages and disadvantages of both forms of feeding.
Some people may develop a flu-like illness within a month or two after exposure to the HIV virus, although many people do not develop any symptoms at all when they first become infected. Many people mistake this flu-like illness as being caused by something else. Persistent or severe symptoms may not surface for 10 years or more, after HIV first enters the body in adults, or within two years in children born with an HIV infection.
Jump up ^ Brenchley JM, Price DA, Schacker TW, Asher TE, Silvestri G, Rao S, Kazzaz Z, Bornstein E, Lambotte O, Altmann D, Blazar BR, Rodriguez B, Teixeira-Johnson L, Landay A, Martin JN, Hecht FM, Picker LJ, Lederman MM, Deeks SG, Douek DC (December 2006). “Microbial translocation is a cause of systemic immune activation in chronic HIV infection”. Nat. Med. 12 (12): 1365–71. doi:10.1038/nm1511. PMID 17115046.
Because HIV infection often is detected through prenatal and STD screening, it is not uncommon for an obstetrician–gynecologist to be the first health professional to provide care for an infected woman. This Committee Opinion is designed to provide guidance to obstetrician–gynecologists regarding ethical issues associated with HIV testing, including the use of newly developed rapid HIV tests and disclosure of positive test results. It also outlines responsibilities related to patient care for women who are infected with HIV, access for affected couples to assisted reproductive technology, and the health care professional who is infected with HIV.
Behçet’s syndrome chronic vasculitic disease of unknown cause; characterized by seronegative arthritis of knees and ankles, elbows and wrists, mouth ulcers, erythema nodosum, visual impairment and cerebrovascular accident
Prophylactic treatment is treatment that is given to prevent disease. AIDS patients with a history of Pneumocystis pneumonia, with CD4+ counts below 200 cells/mm3 or 14% of lymphocytes, weight loss, or thrush should be given prophylactic medications. Drugs that may be given include antibiotics such as trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (Bactrim) or pentamidine (Pentam-300, Pentacarinat) and anti-fungals such as amphotericin B (AmBisome), flucytosine (Ancobon), and clotrimazole (Lotrim AF, Mycelex, Femizole-7). All these drugs can have undesirable side effects.
It depends on if that person is on treatment and how the virus responds to early treatment. When treatment fails to decrease the replication of the virus, the effects can become life threatening, and the infection can progress to AIDS.
Sheen told Lauer that he had unprotected sex “under the care of my doctor” with two women since his diagnosis, but that it was “impossible” that he had transferred the virus to them. While Huizenga did not agree that it’s “impossible,” he did say it was highly unlikely.
PrEP is short for pre-exposure prophylaxis. People who do not have HIV can take a daily pill to reduce their risk of becoming infected. PrEP is not right for everyone and must still be used in combination with safer sex and injection practices. It requires commitment to treatment and does not replace other prevention measures like condom use. It also requires very regular medical visits and frequent blood tests for STDs and HIV, because unknowingly continuing PrEP medication while HIV-infected can lead to resistance and limit HIV treatment options. Resistance has already been reported in a person who became infected while taking PrEP.
Early diagnosis of HIV infection is important because it enables doctors to identify people with HIV infection before their CD4 cell count decreases too much. The sooner people start taking antiretroviral drugs, the more quickly their CD4 count is likely to increase and the higher the count is likely to become.
Two distinct species of HIV (HIV-1 and HIV-2) have been identified, and each is composed of multiple subtypes, or clades. All clades of HIV-1 tend to cause similar disease, but the global distribution of the clades differs. This may have implications on any future vaccine, as the B clade, which is predominant in the developed world (where the large pharmaceutical companies are located), is rarely found in the developing countries that are more severely affected by the disease.
Jump up ^ Cohen, Myron S; Chen, Ying Q; McCauley, Marybeth; Gamble, Theresa; Hosseinipour, Mina C; Kumarasamy, Nagalingeswaran; Hakim, James G; Kumwenda, Johnstone; Grinsztejn, Beatriz; Pilotto, Jose H.S; Godbole, Sheela V; Mehendale, Sanjay; Chariyalertsak, Suwat; Santos, Breno R; Mayer, Kenneth H; Hoffman, Irving F; Eshleman, Susan H; Piwowar-Manning, Estelle; Wang, Lei; Makhema, Joseph; Mills, Lisa A; De Bruyn, Guy; Sanne, Ian; Eron, Joseph; Gallant, Joel; Havlir, Diane; Swindells, Susan; Ribaudo, Heather; Elharrar, Vanessa; et al. (2011). “Prevention of HIV-1 Infection with Early Antiretroviral Therapy”. New England Journal of Medicine. 365 (6): 493–505. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1105243. PMC 3200068 . PMID 21767103.
Because disease-related complications can occur in untreated patients with high CD4 counts and because less toxic drugs have been developed, treatment with ART is now recommended for nearly all patients. The benefits of ART outweigh the risks in every patient group and setting that has been carefully studied. In the Strategic Timing of AntiRetroviral Treatment (START) study, 5472 treatment-naïve patients with HIV infection and CD4 counts > 350 cells/mL were randomized to start ART immediately (immediate initiation) or to defer ART until their CD4 count decreased to < 250 cells/mL(deferred initiation). Risk of AIDS-related events (eg, TB, Kaposi sarcoma, malignant lymphomas) and non-AIDS–related events (eg, non-AIDS cancer, cardiovascular disease) was lower in the immediate-initiation group (1). Acute HIV infection progresses over a few weeks to months to become an asymptomatic HIV infection (no symptoms). This stage can last 10 years or longer. During this period, the person might have no reason to suspect they have HIV, but they can spread the virus to others. [redirect url='http://penetratearticles.info/bump' sec='7']