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Persons unaware of their human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection are estimated to account for approximately 40% of ongoing transmissions in the United States (1). As a result of increased testing, the percentage of persons living with HIV who are aware of their infection has steadily increased; at the end of 2014, an estimated 85% of persons living with HIV were aware of their infection, approaching the national goal of 90% by 2020 (2). Persons aware of their HIV infection reduce their transmission risk behaviors and can enter HIV care and take antiretroviral treatment to achieve viral suppression (a viral load result of <200 copies/mL, or undetectable levels) (3). Viral suppression not only preserves immune function, decreasing a person’s risk for morbidity and mortality, but also profoundly reduces risk for sexual transmission to others (4–6). Early detection of HIV infection maximizes these benefits. Since the first case was identified in 1981, acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) has grown into an epidemic that has taken approximately 500,000 lives in the United States alone. The Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS estimates that at the end of 2002 there were 42 million people living with HIV/AIDS worldwide. During 2002, AIDS caused the deaths of an estimated 3.1 million people. At this time, women were increasingly affected by AIDS; it was estimated that women comprised approximately 50 percent or 19.2 million of the 38.6 million adults living with HIV or AIDS worldwide. No cure has been found, although existing treatment employing multiple drugs has made some gains in prolonging life and reducing pain. Despite the limits of medical science, however, much is known about the disease. It is caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Transmitted by bodily fluids from person to person, HIV invades certain key blood cells that are needed to fight off infections. HIV replicates, spreads, and destroys these host cells. When the body's immune system becomes deficient, the person becomes AIDS-symptomatic, which means the person develops infections that the body can no longer ward off. Ultimately, a person with AIDS dies from diseases caused by other infections. The leading killer is a form of pneumonia. In this era of increasingly effective treatments for HIV, people with HIV are living longer, healthier, and more productive lives. Deaths from HIV infection have greatly declined in the United States since the 1990s. As the number of people living with HIV grows, it will be more important than ever to increase national HIV prevention and health care programs. Re F, Braaten D, Franke EK, Luban J. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vpr arrests the cell cycle in G2 by inhibiting the activation of p34cdc2-cyclin B. J Virol. 1995 Nov. 69(11):6859-64. [Medline]. [Full Text]. HIV contains 3 species-defining genes: gag, pol, and env. The gag gene encodes group-specific antigen; the inner structural proteins. The pol gene encodes polymerase; it also contains integrase and protease (the viral enzymes) and is produced as a C-terminal extension of the Gag protein). The env gene encodes the viral envelope—the outer structural proteins responsible for cell-type specificity. Glycoprotein 120, the viral-envelope protein, binds to the host CD4+ molecule. HIV is present to variable degrees in the blood and genital secretions of virtually all untreated individuals infected with HIV, regardless of whether or not they have symptoms. The spread of HIV can occur when these secretions come in contact with tissues such as those lining the vagina, anal area, mouth, eyes (the mucus membranes), or with a break in the skin, such as from a cut or puncture by a needle. The most common ways in which HIV is spreading throughout the world include sexual contact, sharing needles, and by mother-to-child transmission during pregnancy, labor (the delivery process), or breastfeeding. (See the section below on treatment during pregnancy for a discussion on reducing the risk of transmission to the newborn.) Keith Boykin, a former Clinton White House aide, became so incensed by the down-low hysteria that he wrote a 2005 best-selling book, “Beyond the Down Low: Sex, Lies and Denial in Black America.” “Because the whole down-low story was doing a disservice to the black gay community and creating a racially troubling narrative that black men who have sex with men were villains, I felt I had to step in and correct the record,” said Boykin, a CNN commentator who teaches at Columbia University’s Institute for Research in African-American Studies. “I think the near-decade-long obsession with the down low diverted our attention into what was really a side issue.” Jump up ^ "Guidelines for the Use of Antiretroviral Agents in Pediatric HIV Infection" (PDF). Department of Health and Human Services, February 2014. March 2014. Archived (PDF) from the original on September 14, 2015. Ng M, Gakidou E, Levin-Rector A, Khera A, Murray CJ, Dandona L. Assessment of population-level effect of Avahan, an HIV-prevention initiative in India. Lancet. 2011 Nov 5. 378(9803):1643-52. [Medline]. People with AIDS or who have had positive HIV antibody tests may pass the disease on to others. They should not donate blood, plasma, body organs, or sperm. They should not exchange body fluids during sexual activity. Sax PE, DeJesus E, Mills A, et al. Co-formulated elvitegravir, cobicistat, emtricitabine, and tenofovir versus co-formulated efavirenz, emtricitabine, and tenofovir for initial treatment of HIV-1 infection: a randomised, double-blind, phase 3 trial, analysis of results after 48 weeks. Lancet. 2012 Jun 30. 379(9835):2439-48. [Medline]. Asymptomatic, mild-to-moderate cytopenias (eg, leukopenia, anemia, thrombocytopenia) are also common. Some patients experience progressive wasting (which may be related to anorexia and increased catabolism due to infections) and low-grade fevers or diarrhea. New technologies to help people test themselves are being introduced, with many countries implementing self-testing as an additional option to encourage HIV diagnosis. HIV self-testing is a process whereby a person who wants to know his or her HIV status collects a specimen, performs a test and interprets the test results in private or with someone they trust. HIV self-testing does not provide a definitive HIV-positive diagnosis – instead, it is an initial test which requires further testing by a health worker. Because host cells do not have the ability to replicate “viral RNA” but are able to transcribe messenger RNA, RNA viruses must contain enzymes to produce genetic material for new virions. For certain viruses the RNA is replicated by a viral enzyme (transcriptase) contained in the virion, or produced by the host cell using the viral RNA as a messenger. In other viruses a reverse transcriptase contained in the virion transcribes the genetic message on the viral RNA into DNA, which is then replicated by the host cell. Reverse transcriptase is actually a combination of two enzymes: a polymerase that assembles the new DNA copy and an RNase that degrades the source RNA. The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) originated in Africa in the first half of the 20th century from the cross-species infection of humans by simian immunodeficiency viruses. HIV is most often transmitted during vaginal or anal sex, through blood, or perinatally from mother to child. HIV is a retrovirus that permanently integrates into the host genome of infected cells. Without antiretroviral therapy, HIV infection causes the gradual decline of CD4 T cells, eventually leading to acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). People with AIDS are more likely to contract opportunistic infections and present with cancers caused by latent viruses. Worldwide, over 37 million people are living with HIV/AIDS, and 39 million people have died of the disease. Highly active antiretroviral therapy is effective at reducing virus replication and extending the lives of HIV-infected individuals. Despite scientific advancements and substantial efforts, no effective vaccine yet exists to prevent HIV infection. What is HIV AIDS (human immunodeficiency virus-acquired immunodeficiency syndrome)? Discover myths and facts about living with HIV/AIDS. Learn about HIV/AIDS treatment options, symptoms, and diagnosis. HIV is different in structure from other retroviruses. It is roughly spherical[19] with a diameter of about 120 nm, around 60 times smaller than a red blood cell.[20] It is composed of two copies of positive-sense single-stranded RNA that codes for the virus's nine genes enclosed by a conical capsid composed of 2,000 copies of the viral protein p24.[21] The single-stranded RNA is tightly bound to nucleocapsid proteins, p7, and enzymes needed for the development of the virion such as reverse transcriptase, proteases, ribonuclease and integrase. A matrix composed of the viral protein p17 surrounds the capsid ensuring the integrity of the virion particle.[21] Improving access to quality health care for populations disproportionately affected by HIV, such as people of color and gay and bisexual men, is a fundamental public health strategy for HIV prevention. People getting care for HIV can receive: Studies with powerful drugs that completely block the cycle of HIV replication indicate that the virus is replicating rapidly at all phases of infection, including the asymptomatic phase. Two viral proteins in particular have been the target of drugs aimed at arresting viral replication. These are the viral reverse transcriptase, which is required for synthesis of the provirus, and the viral protease, which cleaves the viral polyproteins to produce the virion proteins and viral enzymes. Inhibitors of these enzymes prevent the establishment of further infection in uninfected cells. Cells that are already infected can continue to produce virions because, once the provirus is established, reverse transcriptase is not needed to make new virus particles, while the viral protease acts at a very late maturation step of the virus, and inhibition of the protease does not prevent virus from being released. However, in both cases, the released virions are not infectious and further cycles of infection and replication are prevented. Bandera A, Ferrario G, Saresella M, et al. CD4+ T cell depletion, immune activation and increased production of regulatory T cells in the thymus of HIV-infected individuals. PLoS One. 2010 May 24. 5(5):e10788. [Medline]. [Full Text]. Jump up ^ Sallam, Malik; Şahin, Gülşen Özkaya; Ingman, Mikael; Widell, Anders; Esbjörnsson, Joakim; Medstrand, Patrik (July 2017). "Genetic characterization of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 transmission in the Middle East and North Africa". Heliyon. 3 (7): e00352. doi:10.1016/j.heliyon.2017.e00352. ISSN 2405-8440. PMID 28725873. Retrieved 16 July 2017. The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) causes HIV infection and the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Symptoms and signs of HIV infection include fatigue, enlarged lymph glands, and recurrent vaginal yeast infections. Highly active antiretroviral therapy (ART) is the standard treatment for HIV infection. It has no cure, since decades ago. Use all preventive measures to stay away from it. Because you have family, and dreams to achieve. So please, please, stay away from it. ''A himt to a wise is quite sufficient'' Initially, some researchers referred to the syndrome as gay-related immune deficiency (GRID), since it appeared to be limited to homosexuals. In the media the disease commonly was referred to as the “gay plague.” But the disease had also been detected in intravenous drug users, who became infected mainly by sharing contaminated hypodermic needles. It also had been observed in women with male sexual partners. As a result, the term acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, or AIDS, was introduced to describe the disease; the CDC published its first report using the term in 1982. Risk of infection is about 0.3% (1:300) after a typical percutaneous exposure and about 0.09% (1:1100) after mucous membrane exposure. These risks vary, reflecting the amount of HIV transferred to the person with the injury; the amount of HIV transferred is affected by multiple factors, including viral load of the source and type of needle (eg, hollow or solid). However, these factors are no longer taken into account in PEP recommendations. HIV is not spread to a person who donates blood or organs. People who donate organs are never in direct contact with the people who receive them. Likewise, a person who donates blood is never in contact with the person receiving it. In all of these procedures, sterile needles and instruments are used. HIV-1 entry, as well as entry of many other retroviruses, has long been believed to occur exclusively at the plasma membrane. More recently, however, productive infection by pH-independent, clathrin-dependent endocytosis of HIV-1 has also been reported and was recently suggested to constitute the only route of productive entry.[60][61][62][63][64] People with AIDS have had their immune system damaged by HIV. They are at very high risk of getting infections that are uncommon in people with a healthy immune system. These infections are called opportunistic infections. These can be caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi, or protozoa, and can affect any part of the body. People with AIDS are also at higher risk for certain cancers, especially lymphomas and a skin cancer called Kaposi sarcoma. Where you live matters. People in the United States and other developed countries are more likely to have access to antiretroviral therapy. Consistent use of these drugs helps prevent HIV from progressing to AIDS. [redirect url='http://penetratearticles.info/bump' sec='7']

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